CHAPTER 29 - JFK and LBJ

Summary 

    =================================================================================================
Each summary also has underlined terms that are hyperlinked so that the student can reasearch topics further. 

Presidency of JFK 

In 1960 he entered and won seven presidential primaries and captured the Democratic nomination on the first ballot. To balance the ticket, he selected Lyndon B. Johnson as his vice-presidential candidate. In the campaign that followed, Kennedy engaged in a series of televised debates with his Republican opponent, Richard M. Nixon. Defeating Nixon by a narrow popular margin, Kennedy became at 43 the youngest person ever, and the first Catholic, elected President. Soon after his inaugural, Kennedy set out his domestic program, known as the New Frontier: tax reform, federal aid to education, medical care for the aged under Social Security, enlargement of civil rights through executive action, aid to depressed areas, and an accelerated space program. He was almost immediately, however, caught up in foreign affairs crises. The first (Apr., 1961) was the abortive Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles trained and aided by the Central Intelligence Agency. Although the invasion had been planned under Eisenhower, Kennedy had approved it, and was widely criticized.  In June, 1961, the President met in Vienna with Soviet Premier Khrushchev. Hopes of a thaw in the cold war were dashed by Khrushchev's threat that the USSR would conclude a peace treaty with East Germany and thus cut off Western access to West Berlin. In the period of tension that followed, the United States increased its military strength while the East Germans erected the Berlin Wall
In Oct., 1962, U.S. reconnaissance planes discovered Soviet missile bases in Cuba. Kennedy immediately ordered a blockade to prevent more weapons from reaching Cuba and demanded the installations' removal. After an interval of extreme tension when the world appeared to be on the brink of nuclear war, the USSR complied with U.S. demands. Kennedy won much praise for his stance in the crisis, but some have criticized him for what they held to be unnecessary “brinkmanship.” In Aug., 1963, tension with the USSR was eased by conclusion of a treaty that prohibited the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.  In Southeast Asia the Kennedy administration perceived a growing Communist threat to the South Vietnamese government; it steadily increased the number of U.S. military advisers in South Vietnam and for the first time placed U.S. troops in combat situations. As disaffection in South Vietnam grew, moreover, the United States involved itself in political maneuvering and finally connived at the overthrow (Oct., 1963) of the corrupt South Vietnamese dictator, Ngo Dinh Diem (see Vietnam War). Within the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy established (1961) the Alliance for Progress, which provided economic assistance to Latin American countries. He also initiated the Peace Corps program, which sent U.S. volunteers to work in developing countries.  Many of Kennedy's domestic reform proposals were either killed or not acted on by Congress. In the area of civil rights and integration the administration assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom Ride demonstrations and used federal troops in Mississippi (1962) and a federalized National Guard in Alabama (1963) to quell disturbances resulting from enforced school desegregation. In June, 1963, Kennedy proposed civil-rights legislation, but this, like his tax reform program, languished until after his death. 
Assassination  On Nov. 22, 1963, President Kennedy was shot and killed while riding in a motorcade in Dallas, Tex. The Warren Commission, appointed by his successor Lyndon Johnson to investigate the murder, eventually concluded that it was the work of a single assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. Kennedy's death shocked the nation. Many felt that he would have gone on to achieve greatness as a President. Subsequent revelations, especially concerning his sexual activity, have somewhat dimmed his luster, but the sense that his administration was a youthful, idealistic “Camelot” remains powerful. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962, major cold war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. After the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the USSR increased its support of Fidel Castro's Cuban regime, and in the summer of 1962, Nikita Khrushchev secretly decided to install ballistic missiles in Cuba. When U.S. reconnaissance flights revealed the clandestine construction of missile launching sites, President Kennedy publicly denounced (Oct. 22, 1962) the Soviet actions. He imposed a naval blockade on Cuba and declared that any missile launched from Cuba would warrant a full-scale retaliatory attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. On Oct. 24, Russian ships carrying missiles to Cuba turned back, and when Khrushchev agreed (Oct. 28) to withdraw the missiles and dismantle the missile sites, the crisis ended as suddenly as it had begun. The United States ended its blockade on Nov. 20, and by the end of the year the missiles and bombers were removed from Cuba. The United States, in return, pledged not to invade Cuba, and subsequently secretly removed ballistic missiles it had placed in Turkey.

HOMEWORK FOR 4/26

Read and complete the last page of the NEW FRONTIER - READING (found below)

______________________________________________

Chapter Outline

SelectionFile type iconFile nameDescriptionSizeRevisionTimeUser
ĉ
View Download
  53k v. 2 May 8, 2012, 7:35 AM Michael DeLucca
ĉ
View Download
  56k v. 2 Aug 17, 2011, 5:18 PM Michael DeLucca
ĉ
View Download
  54k v. 2 Aug 17, 2011, 5:18 PM Michael DeLucca
ĉ
View Download
  14k v. 1 Apr 27, 2016, 11:17 AM Michael DeLucca
ć
View Download
  999k v. 1 Apr 27, 2016, 11:21 AM Michael DeLucca
Ċ
View Download
  141k v. 1 Apr 27, 2016, 11:21 AM Michael DeLucca
Ċ
View Download
  146k v. 2 Apr 27, 2016, 11:21 AM Michael DeLucca
ć
View Download
  1920k v. 1 Apr 27, 2016, 11:17 AM Michael DeLucca
ć
View Download
  3073k v. 1 Apr 27, 2016, 11:20 AM Michael DeLucca
ĉ
View Download
  25k v. 2 May 17, 2012, 10:00 AM Michael DeLucca
Ċ
View Download
  128k v. 2 May 7, 2012, 7:29 AM Michael DeLucca
ĉ
View Download
  176k v. 2 May 9, 2012, 7:37 AM Michael DeLucca
ĉ
View Download
  14k v. 2 Aug 17, 2011, 5:30 PM Michael DeLucca
Comments