CHAPTER 22-23-24 --> The 1930s - DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN CRISIS

Summary 
Each summary also has underlined terms that are hyperlinked so that the student can research topics further. 


1930s DOMESTIC SUMMARY

Great Depression, in U.S. history, the severe economic crisis supposedly precipitated by the U.S. stock-market crash of 1929. Although it shared the basic characteristics of other such crises, the Great Depression was unprecedented in its length and in the wholesale poverty and tragedy it inflicted on society. Economists have disagreed over its causes, but certain causative factors are generally accepted. 

1- The prosperity of the 1920s was unevenly distributed among the various parts of the American economy
2— Farmers and unskilled workers were notably excluded—with the result that 
3- The nation's productive capacity was greater than its capacity to consume. In addition, the 
4- Tariff and war-debt policies of the Republican administrations of the 1920s had cut down the foreign market for American goods. 
5- Inordinate expansion of credit and installment buying 
6- Fantastic speculation in the stock market. 

The American depression produced severe effects at home and abroad, especially in Europe, where many countries had not fully recovered from the aftermath of World War I;

1- In Germany, the economic disaster and resulting social dislocation contributed to the rise of Adolf Hitler. 
2- In the United States, at the depth (1932–33) of the depression, there were 16 million unemployed—about one third of the available labor force.
3- the New Deal under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt did a great deal to calm the effects of the depression and, most importantly, to restore a sense of confidence to the American people. Yet it is generally agreed that complete business recovery was not achieved and unemployment ended until the government began to spend heavily for defense in the early 1940s. 

THE PRESIDENCY OF FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT
In July, 1932, Roosevelt was chosen by the Democratic party as its presidential candidate to run against the Republican incumbent, Herbert C. Hoover. In November, Roosevelt was overwhelmingly elected President. He came to the White House at the height of crisis. Roosevelt's inaugural address held words of hope and vigor to reassure the troubled country—“Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”—and at the same time to prepare it for a prompt and unprecedented emergency program—“This Nation asks for action, and action now. We must act and act quickly.” He did act quickly. During the famous “Hundred Days” (Mar.–June, 1933), the administration rushed through Congress a flood of relief and employment measures. 


Chapter 22 Online Activities 

Section 1 Writing a Diary Entry: The Great Crash 
Section 2 Writing a Newspaper Article: The Dust Bowl 
Section 3 Virtual Field Trip: Empire State Building 
Section 4 Analyzing Primary Sources: FDR's Campaign Speeches 

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1930s FOREIGN SUMMARY

This second global conflict resulted from the rise of totalitarian, militaristic regimes in Germany, Italy, and Japan, a phenomenon stemming in part from the Great Depression that swept over the world in the early 1930s and from the conditions created by the peace settlements (1919–20) following World War I.

After World War I, defeated Germany, disappointed Italy, and ambitious Japan were anxious to regain or increase their power; all three eventually adopted forms of dictatorship (see National Socialism andfascism) that made the state supreme and called for expansion at the expense of neighboring countries. These three countries also set themselves up as champions against Communism, thus gaining at least partial tolerance of their early actions from the more conservative groups in the Western democracies. Also important was a desire for peace on the part of the democracies, which resulted in their military unpreparedness. Finally, the League of Nations, weakened from the start by the defection of the United States, was unable to promote disarmament (see Disarmament Conference); moreover, the long economic depression sharpened national rivalries, increased fear and distrust, and made the masses susceptible to the promises of demagogues.

The failure of the League to stop the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1931 was followed by a rising crescendo of treaty violations and acts of aggression. Adolf Hitler, when he rose to power (1933) in Germany, recreated the German army and prepared it for a war of conquest; in 1936 he remilitarized the Rhineland. BenitoMussolini conquered (1935–36) Ethiopia for Italy; and from 1936 to 1939 the Spanish civil war raged, with Germany and Italy helping the fascist forces of Francisco Franco to victory. In Mar., 1938, Germany annexed Austria, and in Sept., 1938, the British and French policy of appeasement toward the Axis reached its height with the sacrifice of much of Czechoslovakia to Germany in the Munich Pact.
HOMEWORK FOR 12/18
Read and complete the following handouts:
1 - DICTATORS - READING
2 - AGGRESSION - READING
These handouts will introduce you to key terms and other content you will tested on next week. 

ASSIGNED IN CLASS ON TUESDAY 12/1
The handouts are as follows:
1- NEW DEAL - READING
2 - DEPRESSION CULTURE - READING
3 - 2nd NEW DEAL - READING
4 - LEGACY - READING
** COMPLETE ANY LEFT OVER WORK FOR HOMEWORK

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ASSIGNED IN CLASS ON MONDAY 11/30
The handouts are as follows:
1 - SICK ECONOMY - READING
2 - HARDSHIPS - READING
3 - HOOVER - READING
** COMPLETE ANY LEFT OVER WORK FOR HOMEWORK


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