CHAPTER 25 and 26


DAILY HOMEWORK

FOR THE EXAM
Be sure to know the following info:
All content dealing with Immigration and Urbanization 
(Specific Groups, Push-Pull Factors, City Life/Urbanization, Living Conditions, Nativist Reactions, Issues with labor Unions, Reform Movements to help Immigrants/Settlement Houses)
Changes for Women in New Industrial Society
(New job opportunities for Immigrants and Native born, the Growing Suffrage Movement, various reform movements)
Social/Cultural Changes and Issues in Industrial Society
(Goals for pushing for free and public education, Person responsible for Library Movement and expansion, Education for women, Various issues like religion, prohibition, changes to family life and size, introduction of sports for recreational purposes)
Rise of Civil Rights Leaders
(Major objectives and Goals for both W.E.B DuBois and Booker T Washington)

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CHAPTER SUMMARY

Chapter 25 Summary

The United States moved from the country to the city in the postCivil War decades. Mushrooming urban development was exciting but also created severe social problems, including overcrowding and slums.
After the 1880s the cities were flooded with the New Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. With their strange customs and non-Protestant religions, the newcomers sometimes met with nativist hostility and discrimination.
Religion had to adjust to social and cultural changes. Roman Catholicism and Judaism gained strength, while conflicts over evolution and biblical interpretation divided Protestant churches.
American education expanded rapidly, especially at the secondary and graduate levels. Blacks and immigrants tried, with limited success, to use education as a path to upward mobility.
Significant conflicts over moral values, especially relating to sexuality and the role of women, began to appear. The new urban environment provided expanded opportunities for women but also created difficulties for the family. Families grew more isolated from society, the divorce rate rose, and average family size shrank.
American literature and art reflected a new realism, while popular amusement became a big business.

CHAPTER 25 REVIEW VIDEO

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Chapter 26 Summary

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At the close of the Civil War, the Great Plains and Mountain West were still occupied by Indians who hunted buffalo on horseback and fiercely resisted white encroachment on their land and way of life. But the whites railroads, mining, and livestock broke up Indian territory, while diseases undercut their strength and numbers. A cycle of environmental destruction and intertribal warfare eventually overcame Indian resistance and soon threatened Native Americans very existence. The federal government combined a misconceived treaty program with intermittent warfare to force the Indians onto largely barren reservations. Attempting to coerce Indians into adopting white ways, the government passed the Dawes Act, which eliminated tribal ownership of land, while often insensitive humanitarians created a network of Indian boarding schools that further assaulted traditional culture.The mining and cattle frontiers created colorful chapters in western history. Farmers carried out the final phase of settlement, lured by free homesteads, railroads, and irrigation. The census declared the end of the frontier in 1890, concluding a formative phase of American history. The frontier was less of a safety valve than many believed, but the growth of cities actually made the West the most urbanized region of the United States by the 1890s.Beginning in the 1870s, farmers began pushing into the treeless prairies beyond the 100th meridian, using techniques of dry farming that gradually contributed to soil loss. Irrigation projects, later financed by the federal government, allowed specialized farming in many areas of the arid West, including California. The closing of the frontier in 1890 signified the end of traditional westward expansion, but the Great West remained a unique social and environmental region.As the farmers opened vast new lands, agriculture was becoming a mechanized business dependent on specialized production and international markets. Once declining prices and other woes doomed the farmers to permanent debt and dependency, they began to protest their lot, first through the Grange and then through the Farmers Alliances, the prelude to the Peoples (Populist) party. The major depression of the 1890s accelerated farmer and labor strikes and unrest, leading to a growing sense of class conflict. In 1896 pro-silverite William Jennings Bryan captured the Democratic partys nomination, and led a fervent campaign against the goldbug Republicans and their candidate William McKinley. McKinleys success in winning urban workers away from Bryan proved a turning point in American politics, signaling the triumph of the city, the middle class, and a new party system that turned away from monetary issues and put the Republicans in the political drivers seat for two generations.

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