CHAPTER 10, 11 and 12

WASHINGTON, ADAMS, JEFFERSON, MADISON AND MONROE ADMINSTRATIONS
DAILY HOMEWORK 


ADDITIONAL RESOURCE VIDEOS:
THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS COME FROM THE FOLLOWING YOUTUBE CHANNELS:
- ADAM NORRIS
- JOCZ PRODUCTIONS
- HIP HUGHES HISTORY
-CRASH COURSE
**  A LINK IS POSTED BELOW EACH VIDEO

YouTube Video

http://youtube.com/watch?v=jR6rU3V_1Es

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http://youtube.com/watch?v=rnSvHuBhOe4

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=apKiEixzyDs&list=UUVP_vzaHr-s9SZoCOJu3GHw

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http://youtube.com/watch?v=RNftCCwAol0

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http://youtube.com/watch?v=qMXqg2PKJZU

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http://youtube.com/watch?v=8TdpX7gF5GI

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T3n91KhiOxg&index=2&list=UUVP_vzaHr-s9SZoCOJu3GHw
CHAPTER SUMMARY

CHAPTER 10 SUMMARY: 
The fledgling government faced considerable difficulties and skepticism about its durability, especially since traditional political theory held that large-scale republics were bound to fail. But President Washington brought credibility to the new government, while his cabinet, led by Alexander Hamilton, strengthened its political and economic foundations. The government’s first achievements were the Bill of Rights and Hamilton’s financial system. Through effective leadership, Hamilton carried out his program of funding the national debt, assuming state debts, imposing customs and excise taxes, and establishing a Bank of the United States. The bank was the most controversial part of Hamilton’s program because it raised basic constitutional issues. Opposition to the bank from Jefferson and his followers reflected more fundamental political disagreements about republicanism, economics, federal power, and foreign policy. As the French Revolution evolved from moderation to radicalism, it intensified the ideological divisions between the pro-French Jeffersonian and the pro-British Hamiltonians. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation angered Republicans, who wanted America to aid Revolutionary France. Washington’s policy was sorely tested by the British, who routinely violated American neutrality. In order to avoid war, Washington endorsed the conciliatory Jay’s Treaty, further outraging the Republicans and France. After the humiliating XYZ affair, the United States came to the brink of war with France, but Adams sacrificed his political popularity and divided his party by negotiating peace. These foreign-policy disagreements embittered domestic politics: Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, to which Jefferson and Madison responded with the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions. 

CHAPTER 10 REVIEW VIDEO 

YouTube Video

http://youtube.com/watch?v=jYWzcx7Quc0
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CHAPTER 11 SUMMARY

The ideological conflicts of the early Republic culminated in the bitter election of 1800 between Adams and Jefferson. Despite the fierce rhetoric of the campaign, the Revolution of 1800 demonstrated that the infant Republic could peacefully transfer power from one party to another. The election of 1800 also signaled the decline of the conservative Federalist Party, which proved unable to adjust to the democratic future of American politics.Jefferson the political theorist came to Washington determined to restore what he saw as the original American revolutionary ideals and to implement his Republican principles of limited and frugal government, strict construction, and an antimilitarist foreign policy. But Jefferson the practical politician had to compromise many of these goals, thereby moderating the Republican-Federalist ideological conflict.The sharpest political conflicts occurred over the judiciary, where John Marshall worked effectively to enshrine the principles of judicial review and a strong federal government. Against his original intentions, Jefferson himself also enhanced federal power by waging war against the Barbary pirates and by his dramatic purchase of Louisiana from Napoleon. The Louisiana Purchase was Jefferson’s greatest success, increasing national unity and pointing to America’s long-term future in the West. But in the short term the vast geographical expansion fostered schemes like Aaron Burrs to break the west away from the United States.Nevertheless, Jefferson became increasingly entangled in the horrific European wars between Napoleonic France and Britain, as both great powers obstructed American trade and violated freedom of the seas. Jefferson attempted to avoid war through his embargo policy, which damaged the American economy and stirred bitter opposition in New England.Jefferson’s successor, James Madison, soon stumbled into a diplomatic trap set by Napoleon, and western War Hawks hoping to acquire Canada whooped the United States into a war with Britain in 1812. The nation went to war totally unprepared, bitterly divided, and devoid of any coherent strategy.

 CHAPTER 11 REVIEW VIDEO

YouTube Video

http://youtube.com/watch?v=Wx2kfINfIWY
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CHAPTER 12 SUMMARY: 

Americans began the War of 1812 with high hopes of conquering Canada. But their strategy and efforts were badly flawed, and before long British and Canadian forces had thrown the United States on the defensive. The Americans fared somewhat better in naval warfare, but by 1814 the British had burned Washington and were threatening New Orleans. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in a stalemate that solved none of the original issues. But Americans counted the war a success and increasingly turned away from European affairs and toward isolationism. Despite some secessionist talk by New Englanders at the Hartford Convention, the ironic outcome of the divisive war was a strong surge of American nationalism and unity. Political conflict virtually disappeared during the Era of Good Feelings under President Madison. A fervent new nationalism appeared in diverse areas of culture, economics and foreign policy. The Era of Good Feelings was soon threatened by the Panic of 1819, caused largely by excessive land speculation and unstable banks. An even more serious threat came from the first major sectional dispute over slavery, which was postponed but not really resolved by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court further enhanced its role as the major force upholding a powerful national government and conservative defense of property rights. Marshall’s rulings partially checked the general movement toward states’ rights and popular democracy. Nationalism also led to a more assertive American foreign policy. Andrew Jackson’s military adventures in Spanish Florida resulted in the cession of that territory to the U.S. American fears of European intervention in Latin America encouraged Monroe and J. Q. Adams to lay down the Monroe Doctrine


CHAPTER 12 REVIEW VIDEO

YouTube Video

http://youtube.com/watch?v=Wg9xiNl1ma8
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