CHAPTERS 1-9

DIRECTLY BELOW YOU WILL FIND SUMMARIES FROM THE CHAPTERS YOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO READ OVER THE SUMMER  AS WELL AS REVIEW VIDEOS FOR EACH CHAPTER. AT THE VERY BOTTOM, THERE ARE COURSE NOTES FOR EACH CHAPTER WHICH PROVIDE A DETAILED OUTLINE TO GUIDE THE READING. 
***Course Notes were downloaded from: 
(http://www.coursenotes.org/us_history/notes/the_american_pageant_13th_edition_textbook_notes)

IT IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED YOU READ THE CHAPTER WHILE REFERRING TO THE COURSE NOTES TO ADD TO OR CLARIFY THE INFORMATION. 
THE REVIEW VIDEOS SHOULD SERVE AS A GREAT WRAP-UP/REVIEW TO HIGH-LITE THE MOST IMPORTANT FEATURES OR TO HELP BETTER UNDERSTAND THE INFORMATION ON THE LEVEL NECESSARY FOR THIS COURSE.
***Video links come  from Jocz Productions and Adam Norris: 
https://www.youtube.com/user/JoczProductions
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC223Rd7yCfDo9fv6ENdNp9Q

IF YOU NEED FURTHER HELP OR ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE, YOU CAN FIND MORE CONTENT SPECIFIC POWERPOINTS BELOW IN THE DOCUMENTS SECTION OF THIS PAGE.
**** PowerPoint Presentations are downloaded from http://historyteacher.net/
APUSH - 
HISTORICAL PERIOD 1
 
AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 1: New World Beginnings, 33,000 B.C.–A.D. 1769 
Chapter Summary 

Millions of years ago, the two American continents became geologically separated from the Eastern Hemisphere land masses where humanity originated. The first people to enter these continents came across a temporary land bridge from Siberia about 35,000 years ago. Spreading across the two continents, they developed a great variety of societies based largely on corn agriculture and hunting. In North America, some ancient Indian peoples like the Pueblos, the Anasazi, and the Mississippian culture developed elaborate settlements. But on the whole, North American Indian societies were less numerous and urbanized than those in Central and South America, though equally diverse in culture and social organization. 
The impetus for European exploration came from the desire for new trade routes to the East, the spirit and technological discoveries of the Renaissance, and the power of the new European national monarchies. The European encounters with America and Africa, beginning with the Portuguese and Spanish explorers, convulsed the entire world. Biological change, disease, population loss, conquest, African slavery, cultural change, and economic expansion were just some of the consequences of the commingling of the Old World and the New World. 
After they conquered and then intermarried with Indians of the great civilizations of South America and Mexico, the Spanish conquistadors expanded northward into the northern border territories of Florida, New Mexico, and California. There they established small but permanent settlements in competition with the French and English explorers who also were venturing into North America. 

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_rSS9Y53jVI
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APUSH - 
HISTORICAL PERIOD 2

AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 2: The Planting of English America, 1500–1733 
Chapter Summary 

The defeat of the Spanish Armada and the exuberant spirit of Elizabethan nationalism finally drew England into the colonial race. After some early failures, the first permanent English colony was established at Jamestown, Virginia. Initially it faced harsh conditions and Indian hostility, but tobacco cultivation finally brought prosperity and population growth. It also guaranteed colonists the same rights as Englishmen and developed an early form of representative self-government. 
The early encounters of English settlers with the Powhatans in Virginia established many of the patterns that characterized later Indian-white relations in North America. Indian societies underwent their own substantial changes as a result of warfare, disease, trade, and the mingling and migration of Indians from the Atlantic coast to inland areas. 
Other colonies were established in Maryland and the Carolinas. South Carolina flourished by establishing close ties with the British sugar colonies in the West Indies. It also borrowed the West Indian pattern of harsh slave codes and large plantation agriculture. North Carolina developed somewhat differently, with fewer slaves and more white colonists who owned small farms. Latecomer Georgia served initially as a buffer against the Spanish and a haven for debtors. 
Despite some differences, all the southern colonies depended on staple plantation agriculture for their survival and on the institutions of indentured servitude and African slavery for their labor. With widely scattered rural settlements, they had relatively weak religious and social institutions and tended to develop hierarchical economic and social orders. 



YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y51ri8EwUZs
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AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 3: Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619–1700 
Chapter Summary 

The New England colonies were founded by English Puritans. While most Puritans sought to “purify” the Church of England from within, and not to break away from it, a small group of Separatists—the Pilgrims—founded the first small, pious Plymouth Colony in New England. More important was the larger group of nonseparating Puritans, led by John Winthrop, who founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony as part of the “great migration” of Puritans fleeing persecution in England in the 1630s. 
A strong sense of common purpose among the first settlers shaped the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Because of the close alignment of religion and politics in the colony, those who challenged religious orthodoxy, among them Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams, were considered guilty of sedition and driven out of Massachusetts. The banished Williams founded Rhode Island, by far the most religiously and politically tolerant of the colonies. Other New England settlements, all originating in Massachusetts Bay, were established in Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire. Although they shared a common way of life, the New England colonies developed with a substantial degree of independence. 
The middle colonies took shape quite differently. New York, founded as New Netherland by the Dutch and later conquered by England, was economically and ethnically diverse, socially hierarchical, and politically quarrelsome. Pennsylvania, founded as a Quaker haven by William Penn, also attracted an economically ambitious and politically troublesome population of diverse ethnic groups. 
With their economic variety, ethnic diversity, and political factionalism, the middle colonies were the most typically “American” of England’s thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies. 







YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ud0MyzwA_mU
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AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 4: American Life in the 17th Century, 1607–1692 
Chapter Summary 

Life was hard in the seventeenth-century southern colonies. Disease drastically shortened life spans in the Chesapeake region, even for the young single men who made up the majority of settlers. Families were few and fragile, with men greatly outnumbering women, who were much in demand and seldom remained single for long. 
The tobacco economy first thrived on the labor of white indentured servants, who hoped to work their way up to become landowners and perhaps even become wealthy. But by the late seventeenth century, this hope was increasingly frustrated, and the discontents of the poor whites exploded in Bacon’s Rebellion.
With white labor increasingly troublesome, slaves (earlier a small fraction of the workforce) began to be imported from West Africa by the tens of thousands in the 1680s, and soon became essential to the colonial economy. Slaves in the Deep South died rapidly of disease and overwork, but those in the Chesapeake tobacco region survived longer. Their numbers eventually increased by natural reproduction and they developed a distinctive African American way of life that combined African elements with features developed in the New World. 
By contrast with the South, New England’s clean water and cool air contributed to a healthy way of life, which added ten years to the average English life span. The New England way of life centered on strong families and tightly knit towns and churches, which were relatively democratic and equal by seventeenth-century standards. By the late seventeenth century, however, social and religious tensions developed in these narrow communities, as the Salem witch hysteria dramatically illustrates. 
Rocky soil forced many New Englanders to turn to fishing and merchant shipping for their livelihoods. Their difficult lives and stern religion made New Englanders tough, idealistic, purposeful, and resourceful. In later years they spread these same values across much of American society. 
Seventeenth-century American society was still almost entirely simple and agrarian. Would-be aristocrats who tried to recreate the social hierarchies of Europe were generally frustrated. 

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qdFj4Kn7Uyk



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AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 5: Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700–75 
Chapter Summary 

By 1775 the thirteen American colonies east of the Appalachians were inhabited by a burgeoning population of two million whites and half a million blacks. The white population was increasingly a melting pot of diverse ethnic groups including Germans and the Scots-Irish. 
Compared with Europe, America was a land of equality and opportunity (for whites), but relative to the seventeenth-century colonies, there was a rising economic hierarchy and increasing social complexity. Ninety percent of Americans remained agriculturalists. But a growing class of wealthy planters and merchants appeared at the top of the social pyramid, in contrast with slaves and “jayle birds” from England, who formed a visible lower class. 
By the early eighteenth century, the established New England Congregational church was losing religious fervor. The Great Awakening, sparked by fiery preachers like Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, spread a new style of emotional worship that revived religious zeal. Colonial education and culture were generally undistinguished, although science and journalism displayed some vigor. Politics was everywhere an important activity, as representative colonial assemblies battled on equal terms with politically appointed governors from England. 

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ra11g0yp6U&index=4&list=PLlair5BOIPJZGD_P1-gXy41TPBcqoMlc3

APUSH - 
HISTORICAL PERIOD 3

AMERICAN PAGEANT
CHAPTER 6: The Duel for North America, 1608–1763 
Chapter Summary 

Like Britain, France entered late into the American colonial scramble, eventually developing an extensive though thinly settled empire economically based on the fur trade. During much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Britain and France engaged in a bitter power struggle that frequently erupted into worldwide wars. In North America these wars constituted an extended military duel for imperial control of the continent. 

The culminating phase of this struggle was inaugurated by young George Washington’s venture into the sharply contested Ohio country. After early reversals in the Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War), the British under William Pitt revived their fortunes and won a decisive victory at Quebec, finally forcing the French from North America. 

The American colonials, who had played a large part in Britain’s imperial wars with France, emerged with increased confidence in their own abilities. The removal of the French and Spanish threat to British control of North America kindled increasing tensions between the colonists and Britain. The Ottawa chief Pontiac’s unsuccessful uprising in 1763 convinced the British of the need to continue stationing troops in America. But with foreign threats gone, the colonists were unwilling to pay taxes for British protection and increasingly resented Britain’s authority.
 


 

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmPAIbd9je8
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AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 7: The Road to Revolution, 1763–1775 
Chapter Summary 

The American War of Independence was a military conflict fought from 1775 to 1783, but the American Revolution was a deeper transformation of thought and loyalty that began when the first settlers arrived in America and finally led to the colonies’ political separation from Britain. 
One source of long-term conflict was the tension between the considerable freedom and self-government the colonists enjoyed in the American wilderness and their participation in the British Empire’s mercantile system. While British mercantilism actually provided economic benefits to the colonies along with certain liabilities, its limits on freedom and patronizing goal of keeping America in a state of perpetual economic adolescence stirred growing resentment. 
The short-term movement toward the War of Independence began with British attempts to impose higher taxes and tighter imperial controls after the French and Indian War. To the British these were reasonable measures, under which the colonists would simply bear a fair share of the costs of the empire. To the colonists, however, the measures constituted attacks on fundamental rights. 
Through well-orchestrated agitation and boycotts, the colonists forced repeal of the Stamp Act of 1765 as well as the Townshend Acts that replaced it, except for the symbolic tax on tea. A temporary lull in conflict between 1770 and 1773 ended with the Boston Tea Party, conducted by a network of Boston agitators reacting to the Massachusetts governor’s attempt to enforce the law. 
In response to the Tea Party, the British imposed the harsh Intolerable Acts, coincidentally passing the Quebec Act at the same time. These twin actions aroused ferocious American resistance throughout the colonies, and led directly to the calling of the First Continental Congress and the clash of arms at Lexington and Concord. 
As the two sides prepared for war, the British enjoyed the advantages of a larger population, a professionally trained militia, and much greater economic strength. The greatest American asset was the deep commitment of those Patriots who were ready to sacrifice for their rights. 

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvnYX0U3-h4
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AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 8: America Secedes from the Empire, 1775–1783 
Chapter Summary 

Even after Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress did not at first pursue independence. The Congress’s most important action was selecting George Washington as military commander. 
After further armed clashes, George III formally proclaimed the colonists in rebellion, and Thomas Paine’s Common Sense finally persuaded Americans to fight for independence as well as liberty. Paine and other leaders promoted the Revolution as an opportunity for self-government by the people, though more conservative republicans wanted to retain political hierarchy without monarchy. Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence deepened the meaning of the struggle by proclaiming its foundation in self-evident and universal human rights. 
The committed Patriots, only a minority of the American population, had to fight both Loyalist Americans and the British. Loyalists were strongest among conservatives, city-dwellers, and Anglicans (except in Virginia), while Patriots were strongest in New England and among Presbyterians and Congregationalists. 
In the first phase of the war, Washington stalemated the British, who botched their plan to quash the rebellion quickly at Saratoga. When the French and others then aided the Americans, the Revolutionary War became a world war. 
American fortunes fell badly in 1780–1781, but the colonial army in the South held on until Cornwallis stumbled into a French-American trap at Yorktown. Lord North’s ministry collapsed in Britain, and American negotiators achieved an extremely generous settlement from the Whigs.















YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUo2nZKLzEA&index=5&list=PLlair5BOIPJZGD_P1-gXy41TPBcqoMlc3

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AMERICAN PAGEANT:
CHAPTER 9: The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776–1790 
Chapter Summary

The American Revolution did not overturn the social order, but it did produce substantial changes in social customs, political institutions, and ideas about society and government. Among the changes were the separation of church and state in some places, the abolition of slavery in the North, written political constitutions, and a shift in political power from the eastern seaboard toward the frontier. 
The first weak national government, the Articles of Confederation, was unable to exercise real authority, although it did successfully deal with the western lands issue. The Confederation’s weaknesses in handling foreign policy, commerce and the Shays rebellion spurred the movement to alter the Articles. 
Instead of revising the Articles, the well-off delegates to the Constitutional Convention created a permanent charter for a whole new government. In a series of compromises, the convention produced a plan that provided for a vigorous central government, a strong executive, and protection for property, while still upholding republican principles and states’ rights. The pro-Constitution Federalists, generally representing wealthier and more commercial forces, frightened other groups who feared that the new government would undermine their rights and their interests. 
The Federalists met their strongest opposition from Anti-Federalists in Virginia and New York, but through effective organization and argument, as well as promises to incorporate a bill of rights into the document, they succeeded in getting the Constitution ratified. By establishing the new national government, the Federalists checked the Revolutionary movement, but their conservative regime embraced the central Revolutionary values of popular republican government and liberty.

YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Van6Tfsdvpk&index=6&list=PLlair5BOIPJZGD_P1-gXy41TPBcqoMlc3

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